The value of space-time load-shifting flexibility for 24/7 carbon-free electricity procurement

Image credit: Riepin and Brown


In this study, we explore how and why space-time load-shifting flexibility can be used to meet high 24/7 carbon-free energy targets, as well as what potential benefits it may offer to 24/7 participants and to the rest of the energy system. To answer these questions, we expand the mathematical model of 24/7 CFE procurement developed in the previous work by incorporating spatial and temporal demand flexibility provided by electricity consumers that follow 24/7 carbon-free energy goals. The space-time flexibility is based on the example of data centers; the findings related to temporal flexibility are generally applicable to a wide range of companies with flexible demand.